Category Archives: junk sail

Junk rig evolution – 3 modifications

Back on track

Lochinver harbour June 2019

I have finally ‘cracked the code’ and can log back into this wordpress blog after being shut out for the past year. Persistence pays off!

Quick recap: In Spring 2018 I sailed singlehanded from Port Bannatyne, Bute down to Dale, Pembrokeshire Wales stopping for a couple of weeks in Port Saint Mary’s, Isle of Man on the way. After leaving it at Dale bay at anchor all summer I sailed back up to Scotland stopping at Tayvallich for a few days rest before sailing up to Loch Aline for a short rest then off to the Minch. then up and over to Lochinver arriving at August 22 – where I remain to this day, 5 June 2019.

I came back here in mid-April to prepare the boat for a fun trip up to the Faroes with Alison. I have made some modifications to the rig while waiting for fair winds. Still waiting, and waiting, and waiting, as cold northerly winds descend on us with little respite. We must be in a global cooling emergency!

Junk rig modifications

Foresail topping lift layout

I have forgotten how many times my foresail boom has been snapped in two after a brisk sail somewhere or the other. In response I simply furl it one panel and carry on without issue.  I usually keep it functioning for the next sail with a temporary splint. Later I replace it with a new boom. And then the cycle repeats.

In my first sail across the Atlantic in my then new Junk rig (2012) I snapped the foresail boom first, and then later the lowest batten, meaning the two lowest panels were lost for action.

junk foresail with 30% balance

Foresail dipping forward, rising aft – not good!

But why does the boom keep breaking, you ask?

Because the forward end of it gets caught in the bow pulpit and one fast gibe means something has to break at the point of greatest resistance – in this case the boom where it touches the mast.

But why does the forward end of the boom get caught in the pulpit you ask?

Because in brisk and lumpy sailing conditions it can sink down as the aft end of the sail rises up. This happens because I have approximately 25% – 30% balance on the foresail. In other words, 25% to 30% of the foresail rests forward of the mast, yet the topping lifts only support the sail that is aft of the mast. 95% of the time this is not a problem. But occasionally the forward end of the boom sinks too low below the pulpit rail, the gibe occurs and snap!

The potential solution I have is to extend the topping lift supports forward to support that part of the sail that extends forward of the mast. What could possibly go wrong? Nothing that I can see so far having taken it for a short sail out and about.

The new topping lift arrangement supporting the boom forward of the mast

Extra sheeted mainsail batten

junk-rig main sheeting

New sheeting arrangement with lower fan batten sheeted and standing end sheeted to boom.

As part of my ‘anti-fanup‘ strategy. I have extended both top battens in the fan and will extend the boom further too (although for now I will stick with my temporary extension I rigged up in Norway in 2017).

With the extended battens I now had the opportunity to sheet the lower fan batten as its extension brought it in vertical line the the lower leech. (Without the extension, sheeting this batten would have resulted in the sheet and sheet batten spans snagging on lower leech when tacking or gibing.)

Of course I still wanted to maintain the anti-twist characteristic of the sheeting arrangement by keeping the power to each batten the same pull strength. I though up all sorts of complicated systems to accomplish this and then decided the simple and somewhat obvious way was the best – move all sheet spans up one batten and then sheet the now sheetless boom with the use of an additional block and the standing end.

A short sail around the harbour proved that this worked. No twist in the leech as each batten and boom is served with the same power – power of 1 sheet line for the boom and 2 sheet lines (divided by 2 with the spans) for each batten.

With this arrangement the twist in the previously unbattened fan, although minor, is now less. This also decreases the stress on the topping lifts when deeply furled to fan only – an all round improvement in my books.

5 part main halyard

As I may have ranted in previous posts, extreme twisting of the main halyard has cause me great consternation in the past. I have now switched from a 4 part halyard to a 5 part halyard with a triple block at the masthead and the standing end attached to the boom. On the four part halyard the standing end was at the mast head – requiring me to climb the mast (something I prefer to avoid if possible) when I need to replace of smooth out the entire length of halyard.

Now I can replace the halyard with a new or  temporary line while remaining on deck.

Two other changes to the main halyard to note:

  1. I am allowing the double block on the yard to swivel if it wants. This way it will find its own preferred angle when sailing cutting down on the wear and strain on the block when sailing.
  2. I am placing a swivel shackle on the standing end where it attaches to the yard. This will allow the line to untwist itself while the sail is hoisted and lowered. If that isn’t sufficient I can untwist it myself by hand from the deck without needing to remove the line from the blocks

main halyard standing end swivel

Both of these changes are experimental – their worth unproven by extensive use and testing.

With regards to the mast head block arrangement, I have replaced the double block (aft port crane) and single bloc (aft starboard crane handling the running end) with a triple block on the aft port crane. The running end comes out of the centre sheave as displayed in the Practical Junk Rig book. It seems a bit odd and has the 2 sheaves on the yard moving in opposite circles. It should work – to be validated with use.

Now that I have recovered the password for this blog, I will update the success (or failure) of my modifications after I get back from the Faroes this summer – if the weather ever improves!

Arctic sailing

For the past few months we have been sailing up north, first to Lerwick Shetland and then up the Norwegian coast. We spent the month of June around the Lofoton islands around 68 degrees latitude enjoying 24 hour sunlight. We are now on the way back home currently waiting favourable winds in the Tronheimsieia strait.

junk rig norway arctic lofoton

Looking into the midnight sun at anchor at Indre Vettoysundet 67 40 N, 14 43 E

The rig has preformed well throughout our travels the only problems encountered is the main halyard. Our 10mm braided polyester has suffered extreme twisting and clinking often so bad it could no longer reeve through the blocks. We  changed it to a 3 part halyard in Lerwick with the the end tied to the sling plate to enable the halyard to be removed, untwisted, and re-rigged without having to go to the top of the mast. This helped to a degree but will in no time get twisted up yet again. We switched the main halyard with main sheet, approximately the same length, but this too only provided temporary relief. We then spliced together some three strand and this has worked much better this past moth, although it too has a tendency to twist and kink.

The three part 8mm braided foresail halyard has caused us no grief. This could be in part due to the smaller diameter and lighter loads.

To those who may think that the twisting problems is due to the handling and storage of the halyard, I can state it is not. Much care is taken in de-kinking the line and stowing it every time it is used, yet the problem persists.

junkrig arctic

At anchor at midnight.

The plan for the future is to get bigger blocks, and use new three strand with a 5 part halyard. This should allow the halyard to last longer due to less pressure on any part and allow longer before needing the line to last longer before needing replacement.

On the bright side, the new fore gallows I built and installed this Spring is working as it should. There has not been a single case of fore sheets getting caught on the sides during slack gibes. I am considering building a similar shaped on for the main.

Both sails are holding up well despite needing new patches over small holes and rips every week. I regret not stitching webbing on to foot of the sails now as there seems to be more stress and rips forming than I had anticipated. A modification for this winter. Another sail modification I am planning is to sow in end pockets for the battens on the leach. This should prevent the sheetlets getting caught behind the protruding batten ends of the leach.

Lastly, we have removed the fan up preventer line from the main. It was casing too many unexpected problems jamming and getting caught in places where it shouldn’t. In its place I added a 10 inch extension to the yard. So far no problems with the yard getting the yard end on the wrong side of the topping lifts.

Plan to be home before the end of this month.

new fore gallows design and goosewinged sailing

Fore gallows design

This year’s modification and improvement is a new gallows for the foresail. The previous one was a temporary build from spare 2×4’s. Sturdy enough to get me across the Atlantic. That was 5 years ago.

junk-rig fore gallows design

new fore gallows under construction at home

The problem with the temporary design was that the foresail sheets would get caught on the windward side when gibing. The only solution was to go on deck and move them off by hand.

The new design is curved inwards so the sheets slide up and over when gibing. I have also introduced a dip in the top centre so the furled bundle can sit in it snugly when the topping lifts are slacked. It can then be held firmly in place by tightening the sheets. This element seems to work well and am already considering building a similar gallows for the mainsail this winter.

As you can see in the picture, the fore sheets touch the gallows when the sail is fully extended, although this doesn’t seem to cause undue strain  or problems.

Sailing a schooner junk goosewinged

I have discovered that it is virtually impossible to sail goosewinged (main and foresail sheeted out to different sides of the boat) directly downwind. This is because the larger main creates a wind shadow in the foresail area. The foresail just flaps about from side to side as the boat rolls.

The only way I can sail gooswinged, utilizing the benefit of both sails downwind, is to sail with the wind coming from the aft quarter that the foresail is set. This allows both mainsail and foresail to to be fully flush with wind.

The ability to sheet a sail right out and squared is a huge benefit of junk-rig sails. It allows one to sail off the wind with a wide range of angles without needing to gibe too soon.

Below is a short clip of sailing goosewinged in this manner. Although you cannot see he wind, you can imagine it coming from the aft starboard side of the boat. Works like a charm.

goosewing from Simon Foster on Vimeo.

Plans

We are currently hanging out in Lochinver doing some maintenance and waiting for a suitable weather window to sail north Norway bound.

Fan up preventer line – does it work?

Last autumn I attached a fan up preventer line as designed and promoted by junk-rig Arne from Stavenger Norway. Having had problem with fan up on a few occasions I thought it would be worth the effort.

I discussed fan up and examined Arne’s preventer line in this post: the-dreaded-junk-rig-fan-up/

So, how did it work in practice?

There was only one occasion when I sailed deeply reefed in brisk winds where the fan up preventer line would have potentially prevented a fan up. It was sailing out of Campbelltown harbour on the Kintyre peninsular on my way to the Isle of Bute.

As the winds picked up I reefed down. I then went to tighten the preventer line for it to work and discovered it had become buried in the folds of the sail, unable to budge.

The only way to activate it would have been to raise the sail again and this time pull the preventer line in as the sail is lowered – which would have required 3 hands – one to let down the halyard, one to bring in the sheets as they slacked, and one to keep the preventer line taunt as the sail was furled.

If I didn’t have wind vane steering that would have required 4 hands.

So I can’t say it wouldn’t work if there was a 3 handed co-ordinated lowering of the sail, but the fact that the preventer line gets  trapped in the furled sail renders it useless if you opt for a quicker furling in demanding conditions.

I still think it is a useful extra line to have but requires some forethought and co-ordination in using. I’d like to say that I will be more thoughtful and organised next time I reef the sail in strong winds, but I know I can’t be sure of it. Handling a rig in rough conditions can be more gut-based than rational.

I’m currently finishing a new gallows for the foresail. This one will be slopped and rounded enabling fore sheets slip up and over the gallows when slack sheets come up against it in a gybe. Taking it up to Bute next week to mount it. I will take a picture of it and post it later so you can see what I’m talking about.

Below is a short clip of our sail from Port Ellen, Islay, down around the Mull of Kintyre, up to Campbelltown and then off to Bute for the winter.

I took clips of the reefed main. If you pause the video at seconds 31 to 34 you can maybe make out the preventer line starting at batten 2 going down the leech into the furled folds.

It comes with a soundtrack from an old Newfie sailing song, Up She Rises,  by Bob Porter. Either that or silence, as I don’t have a specialized mike to block out ‘wind thunder’.

Yes this post is 6 months after the date. What a procrastinator!!

reefed junk rig sailing in Scotland from Simon Foster on Vimeo.

The dreaded junk rig fan up

junk rig sailing brae shetland

sailing south from Brae, Shetland back to the Scottish mainland summer 2015

After sailing back to Lochinver from the Shetlands in July, we stayed put until the end of August when a high pressure locked in with brisk northerly winds. Like migrating birds we sailed south to Ireland for the winter.

First landfall was on Tory Island of the north coast of Republican Ulster. After a night at anchor off the harbour pier we sailed down to Arranmore island on the NW coast of Donegal and anchored off the beach past the hook on the south coast.

By this time the northerlies were starting to fade so the next day we made one last push south and by the next day, in light breezes, made our way into the “best natural harbour in Ireland”, Inisbofin.

inishbofin harbour

“best natural harbour in Eire”, Inishbofin

After waiting a week in Inisbofin for favourable winds we pushed off southwards again.

broken main yard

damn!

Just south-west of Slyne Head the main yard suffered a catastrophic failure due to the de-lamination leading to it cracking in half. With no more working main we made the decision to head south-east to head to Kilronan harbour on Inishmore island in the Galway Bay.

moored in Kilronan

hanging out in Kilronan, Inismore

Within a few days we had repaired the main yard with a metal bar lashed to the break but the winds to sail out of Galway Bay and down the south-western corner of Eire were no longer in our favour. With no good forecast in the horizon we decided to take the ferry to Galway and the bus back home to Wales for rest. At this point Alison when up to Scotland for a writing course and within two weeks I was back in Kilronan with a good fair north-easterly breeze.

Great Skellig Little Skellig

Sailing past Great Skellig and Little Skellig, SW Eire

The next few days I sailed around to Cork harbour stopping one night Glandore bay by Union Hall  and the next night anchored of the beach just south of Courtmacsherry before heading into my winter mooring in Drake’s Pool upriver from Crosshaven.

junk rig fan up problem

Yard and top batten snagged after fan up

The sail from Glandore to Courtmacsherry was a particularly brisk one with 20+ knots from the south-west. This made for a fast sail with a reefed main but as can happen in these conditions the main yard and top batten got caught up on the wrong side of the topping lift and mast lift due to a ‘fan up’ when gybing.

This is not as dire as it may sound. Even with a sail hung up on the topping lifts you can sail for many miles and directions without issue. To get the sail untangled you have to come to a stop tho and let the sail weathercock. At that time you have to go up on deck and get the yard and/or batten back into its rightful crib – usually accomplished by a long pole.

fan up junk sail

lower view of fan up snag

Although not debilitating to the sailing ability of the boat, having your sail jammed after a fan up gybe is somewhat disconcerting and should be avoided if possible.

It was not until reading a article by Arne ‘cambered sails’ Kverneland (Stavenger, Norway) in October’s Junk Rig Association magazine that I fully grasped the dynamics that leads to fan ups and jammed yards and battens on the wrong side of the topping lift.

The strong wind (.. a fan-up is a strong wind
phenomenon…) may be enough to grab the upper panels and force the top section and yard over, …   Fan up preventer,  JRA magazine, issue 69

junj rig fan up preventer line

Arne’s fan up preventer line plan

Having experienced two other fan up jams last summer, one from sailing back to Lochinver from Mull in 20+ knots and another when sailing down to Tory island in September, I was getting perturbed by the events and am now planning to incorporate Arne’s fan up preventer (FUP) line.

Having brought both sails back home in December for repairs and strengthening, it is an ideal time to incorporate this preventer line. As much as I dislike adding too many running lines into the rig, this one extra seems worth it.

The solution lies in tightening up the fan up prevention line when reefed so the sail cannot ‘fan up’ without taking the entire sail bundle with it. This should prevent fan ups in everything but hurricane force winds. Or so I hope. I be able to report on its effectiveness when I go out sailing in stiff breezes this summer.

Many thanks to Arne for sharing his ideas (although I’m still sticking to flat sails!)

Back in action

After a few months of rebuilding the Kubota diesel engine in a friend’s garage over the winter, Ara’ Deg is re-powered and ready for action. So Alison and I went on a small sailing expedition around the west coast of Scotland.

junk rig Scotland

Drying out in Acairseid Mhor so I can cut the prop loose.

We hardly used the rebuilt engine at all and when we once did, shifting anchor spot in the small anchorage Acairseid Mhor in north-west Gometra, we backed over the anchor trip line wrapping it securely around the prop shaft stalling the engine, whoops!, requiring a partial dry-out in the shallow section to get access to the prop and cut it out.

Engines can be more of a curse than blessing at times but it feels good to have it there – in case our patience runs out faster than the wind can return on a calm day.

As you can see from the video clip below, the foresail has had many repair patches sown on – not from hard sailing – but simply from the rough treatment it received in Lochinver harbour this winter – one of the stormiest winters in memory. Stout sail covers are now higher up in the list!

The list? The list of things to do, modify, test, etc. The list never ends. You can only hope that things are being crossed off at roughly the same pace as new things are being added on. Reminds me of the saying – if you dislike someone leave them your boat in your will.

We’re still planning a sail to Norway north of the Arctic circle in a few weeks and will be replacing much of the running rigging currently employing three strand with more supple braided polyester of slightly smaller dimensions – 8mm for the fore sheets and halyard and 6mm for the yard, luff and batten parrels.

We found the 3/8 three strand to be getting increasingly stiffer with a tendency to kink and twist. We are hoping the braided line should make for some much smoother action.

Below is a clip of our journey out and back. The trip down to Barra was very pleasant – but the trip back, in rain and a fresh breeze (20 to 25 knots south-westerly) was .. less pleasant. The Minch has a reputation of getting very lumpy and lived up to its reputation. But I only vomited once (strong black coffee on an empty stomach is no way to start a lumpy sail I discovered) and Alison was only thrown out of her bunk onto the floor once. No bruises 🙂 .

Weather and related sea state is everything when sailing. It completely dominates your world and state of mind. I picked sound tracks for the sail down and back that reflect that fact.

P.S. Since posting this video I have been informed that Barra is spelt with two r’s.  Whoops!

Sailing naked (without engine power)

Over the past two months Alison and I have been sailing the west coast of Scotland using wind power alone as a series of mechanical failures and errors have rendered Ara’ Deg without a propeller that revolves when the engine runs. This new reality has turned out to be both a blessing and a curse.

The curse has been our reluctance to explore the deep long lochs where fickle winds and strong tidal currents may live.

The blessing has been an enhanced sense of self-reliance and independence from the global fossil fuel system (and a heightened sense of adventure).

Our northern passage under sail power alone has taken us from Tobermory, Mull to Castlebay, Bara to Loch Poolteil, Skye to Scalpay, Harris to The Shiants to Lochinver on the mainland where we are now berthed on the floating docks contemplating making this her winter home (given that the season has turned and the cool damp weather of autumn is lapping at our feet and my warm dry home in Wales is beckoning).

The junk rig’s ability to maneuver virtually anywhere in tight and demanding circumstances under sail power alone is no longer a theory but now an established fact (in my mind). But it is an on-going learning experience, such as:

When sailing in less than, say, 12/13 knot winds, it is difficult to completely take the wind out of the sails by releasing the sheets. The friction imposed by 7 part sheets including 6 blocks means the sails won’t completely weathercock and the boat cannot be stopped from its forward locomotion.

One solution is to point more into the wind until the sails weathercock – achievable when anchoring or picking up a mooring buoy – but not an option when coming alongside a dock with a beam wind.

One solution would be to go on deck and physically push the sails out until they weathercock. Another way is to release the halyards resulting in the full sails falling into neat bundles in the topping lifts within a couple of seconds (thanks to substantial yards and gravity).

Up till now we have used the second option as it can be accomplished in seconds from the comfort of the cockpit, requiring no deck work.

So far so good but it’s still a learning experience. For example, coming into the docks at Lochinver the other day from a snug anchorage a mile or so up the coast we happily sailed into the harbour under a 7/8 knot breeze with only three of four panels hoisted on the main and foresail. Everything was fine until we attempted to land sailing upwind to the dock. The first two attempts to reach the dock failed as we appeared to be sliding sideways too much and the dock remained tantalizingly close but still too far upwind to reach, forcing us to pull off, circle around, and try again. The third attempt was a bit more ‘mercenary’, starting from a more upwind position, charging the dock without reserve, landing surprisingly smoothly without scrape or bump :).

At the time we surmised that we were dealing with a contrary current but on reflection I think the the simple fact was that we had failed to hoist enough sail to give us the drive needed to maintain a straight course when sailing upwind. I believe under full sail we could have reached the dock first attempt.

Lesson learnt: The name of the boat, Ara’ Deg (Easy Does It), isn’t applicable when sailing in tight corners where complete control and accuracy is needed. Junks really need to be sailed ‘full on’. No half measures.

– – –

I have made no changes to the rig apart from changing the sheeting order of the mainsail from first-pull-from-the-bottom to first-pull-from-the-top, as the foresail was already sheeted. I did this to help eliminate leech twist when under sail and the new arrangement seems to be an improvement (not that the twist was ever excessive). I took a short clip of the new arrangement sailing downwind under a light 3/4 knot breeze (see below). The ‘snaking’ of the leech is simply the boat rocking in the swells, not any sheet bias, as far as I can tell.

junk sail leech twist from Simon Foster on Vimeo.

I believe I failed to mention that I did not re-instate the six downhauls (three on fore, three on main) when I re-rigged her in the Spring. Apart from achieving a somewhat better sail shape when partially furled in heavy weather, I can see little use for them and am glad to be rid of the extra complication and lines.

Following the previous post one person had a single word comment response – “yawn”, which made me laugh. I can fully understand how someone seeking a sailing adventure story could find a yawn hard to suppress when reading about the principles, mechanics, performance and issues of adapting junk rigs to western hulls. I believe it is a subject that is of interest to fellow ‘junkers’ and those sailors interested in alternate rigs, but few else :D.

Something for everyone? Alison’s blog: aradeg.tumblr.com